Pathology is the study of diseases and aims to deliver a fine-grained diagnosis to understand processes in the body as well as to enable targeted treatment. In this area, the opportunities for digital image processing are vast: While the need for precision medicine, i.e., taking into account various co-dependencies when formulating the best possible treatment for a patient, is high, the number of pathologists is not increasing accordingly. Deep learning-based techniques can be used for different objectives in this scope. Examples include screening large microscopy images for specific rare events, providing visual augmentation with analysis data. Additionally, the availability of massive data collections, including genomics and further biological factors, can be utilized to determine specific information about diseases that were previously unavailable.